Pleistocene expansion, anthropogenic pressure, and ocean currents: Disentangling the past and ongoing evolutionary history of Patella aspera Röding, 1798 in the archipelago of Madeira

Marine Environmental Research, 172 (2021) 105485

Aims: Rising sea-level following the Last Glacial Maximum lead to fragmentation of coastal limpet populations between islands of the Archipelago of Madeira. This fragmentation is reinforced by recent heavy exploitation reducing effective population size on Madeira Island. We use the limpet P. aspera to understand how the role of processes at different time scales (i.e. changes in the sea level and overexploitation) can influence the genetic composition of an extant species, relating these processes to reproductive phenology and seasonal shifts in ocean currents. Location: Madeira Island, Porto Santo and Desertas (Archipelago of Madeira, NE Atlantic Ocean). Taxon: The limpet Patella aspera. Methods: Twelve microsatellite genetic markers were used. A power analysis was used to evaluate the power of the microsatellite markers to detect a signal of population differentiation. Long-term past migrations were assessed using a Bayesian Markov Montecarlo approach in the software MIGRATE-n to estimate mutation-scaled migration rates (M = m/μ; m, probability of a lineage immigrating per generation; μ, mutation rate). Two scenarios were evaluated using an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) in the software DIYABC 2.1 (i) Scenario 1: considered a population scenario from a reduced Ne at time t3 to a higher Ne at time t2; and (ii) Scenario 2 considering a reduction of Ne from a time t3 to a time t2. Results: Colonization of the archipelago by Portuguese settlers six centuries ago probably led to an important decrease in the genetic diversity of the species (Ne). Contemporary gene flow strongly support a pattern of high asymmetric connectivity explained by the reproductive phenology of the species and spatio-temporal seasonal changes in the ocean currents. Spatio-temporal reconstructions using Bayesian methods, including coalescent and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approaches, suggest changes in the migration patterns from highly symmetric to highly asymmetric connectivity with subtle population differentiation as consequence of post-glacial maximum sea level rise during the Holocene.

Major ocean currents may shape the microbiome of the topshell Phorcus sauciatus in the NE Atlantic Ocean

Scientific Reports, 11: 12480 (2021)

Studies on microbial communities are pivotal to understand the role and the evolutionary paths of the host and their associated microorganisms in the ecosystems. Meta-genomics techniques have proven to be one of the most effective tools in the identification of endosymbiotic communities of host species. The microbiome of the highly exploited topshell Phorcus sauciatus was characterized in the Northeastern Atlantic (Portugal, Madeira, Selvagens, Canaries and Azores). Alpha diversity analysis based on observed OTUs showed significant differences among regions. The Principal Coordinates Analysis of beta-diversity based on presence/absence showed three well differentiated groups, one from Azores, a second from Madeira and the third one for mainland Portugal, Selvagens and the Canaries. The microbiome results may be mainly explained by large-scale oceanographic processes of the study region, i.e., the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, and specifically by the Canary Current. Our results suggest the feasibility of microbiome as a model study to unravel biogeographic and evolutionary processes in marine species with high dispersive potential.

On the presence of the slipper lobster Scyllarus subarctus (Decapoda, Achelata, Scyllaridae) in waters of the Cape Verde Islands

Crustaceana, 94 (7): 897-901 (2021)

A checklist of decapod crustaceans from the Cape Verde archipelago was recently published, including a biogeographic assessment and a comparison with the decapodal biota of the Canary Islands (González, 2018). In addition, eight other decapod species have recently been reported from the region: Lysmata seticaudata (Risso, 1816) (Lysmatidae), Brachycarpus biunguiculatus (Lucas, 1846) (Palaemonidae) and Thor amboinensis (DeMan, 1888) (Thoridae) (Wirtz, 2019), Gnathophyllum americanum Guérin-Méneville, 1855 (Palaemonidae) (Neves, 2020a), and Typton anaramosae Neves, 2020 (Palaemonidae) (Neves, 2020b), within the carideans; Stenopus spinosus Risso, 1827 (Stenopodidae) (Wirtz, 2019), within the stenopodideans; and Parribacus antarcticus (Lund, 1793) (Scyllaridae) (Freitas & Wirtz, 2019), within the achelates. Also, larval stages (phyllosoma phase) of Scyllarus subarctus Crosnier, 1970 (Scyllaridae) have been reported from the area (Genis-Armero et al., 2017).

Southernmost record of the Faial squat lobster Galathea faiali (Decapoda, Anomura, Galatheidae) in waters of the Cape Verde Islands, with remarks on their decapod fauna

Crustaceana, 94 (9): 1155-1160 (2021)

Although the Cape Verde marine decapod fauna is relatively well studied and can be considered one of the best known in theWest African region, with a recently published checklist accounting for 343 species and subspecies (González, 2018), the knowledge of this group in this archipelago is far from being complete. A clear evidence of this fact is the increasing number of species recently described or reported for the first time from Cape Verde (Freitas & Wirtz, 2019; Wirtz, 2019; Neves, 2020a, b; Neves & González, 2021). In the present study, another species hitherto unknown to occur in the Cape Verde Islands, the Faial squat lobster Galathea faiali Nunes-Ruivo, 1961 (Anomura, Galatheidae), is reported for the first time. In addition, some remarks are addressed to update the decapod fauna from the Cape Verde archipelago.

Resultados científicos de las campañas de investigación pesquera (1980-2012) del Instituto Canario de Ciencias Marinas en el Atlántico centro-oriental

Vieraea, 47: 79-142 (2021)

Este trabajo de revisión analiza por primera vez 114 campañas de investigación pesquera, participadas por el Instituto Canario de Ciencias Marinas, enmarcadas en 42 acciones de investigación desarrolladas entre 1980 y 2012. Se extraen los resultados más relevantes y se identifican los beneficios para la comunidad, recopilándose la bibliografía científica generada. En el escenario regional actual, los autores reflexionan sobre la necesidad de disponer de un buque oceanográfico multipropósito de uso compartido y ámbito de actuación en el área Canarias-Macaronesia.

Small but strong: socioeconomic and ecological resilience of a small European fishing community affected by a submarine volcanic eruption

Ocean and Coastal Management, 223 (2022): 106124

Small-scale coastal fishing communities are facing many new challenges, such as rapid ecological changes created by anthropogenic and natural events like earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. This paper explores how a coastal population has responded to such an event and highlights the diverse coping strategies used to tackle it. This research was conducted on the island of El Hierro (Spain), where a submarine volcanic eruption occurred in 2011, affecting a multiple-use Marine Protected Area (MPA) and the nearby fishing community of La Restinga. Our study illustrates how the local population coped with this situation by combining multiple monetary and non-monetary activities (e.g., informal exchanges) as well as the role of institutions in increasing local resilience by supporting fishers’ demands and allowing their participation in the decision-making process in the immediate wake of a catastrophic event. Local families also exploited various natural resources in and near the MPA, thus ensuring access to crucial marine resources and continued recreational/cultural services. The results suggest that collective action played a key role in the recovery process after the eruption, creating some advantages for different local groups despite the hazardous nature of the event.

Identificación genética mediante PCR-RFLP de especies de la familia Balistidae (Pisces) en islas del Atlántico centro-oriental

Foro de los Recursos Marinos y de la Acuicultura de las Rías Gallegas 22: 413-422.

Diferentes patrones biológicos y de biodiversidad genética muestran una común ausencia de diferenciación poblacional en la Macaronesia para el peto, Acanthocybium solandri, y el rascacio de profundidad, Pontinus kuhlii

Foro de los Recursos Marinos y de la Acuicultura de las Rías Gallegas 22: 351-360.

Review of the family Serranidae (Perciformes) from the Canary Islands (eastern-central Atlantic), with the first records of Serranus hepatus and Epinephelus aeneus

This paper is an updated account of the Serranidae (groupers and sea basses) from the Canary Islands (eastern-central Atlantic). In this region this family is represented by 16 valid species belonging to six genera: Serranus, Anthias, Cephalopholis, Epinephelus, Mycteroperca, and Paranthias. Their biogeographic patterns and known distribution are provided, and several hypotheses explaining their presence in the Canaries are discussed. Settlement of Epinephelus costae is confirmed in Canary waters, where it is subject to regular recreational fishing. Also, the present report first records Serranus hepatus and Epinephelus aeneus from the Canaries. For each species, biogeographic pattern, temporal establishment process, local fishing uses, and measures for their conservation management are discussed and summarized in a table.

The fish family Muraenidae – an ideal group to test at small-scale the coherency of Macaronesia as a biogeographic unit, with first report on separate statistics

Este trabajo fue ideado para estudiar las especies de Muraenidae (morenas) presentes en aguas de los archipiélagos volcánicos de Azores, Madeira, Salvajes, Canarias y Cabo Verde (Atlántico centro-oriental), cuyos patrones biogeográficos fueron analizados y comparados. La hipótesis de partida fue que esta familia ictiológica es un grupo ideal para verificar, a pequeña escala, la coherencia de la Macaronesia y sus unidades biogeográficas directamente relacionadas –i.e. Azores, Webbnesia y Cabo Verde– propuestas en la literatura reciente. Además, este estudio proporciona, por primera vez, estadísticas pesqueras separadas de este grupo en la región que fueron analizadas para contrastar los resultados biogeográficos.

On the occurrence of Penaeus pulchricaudatus (Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata, Penaeidae) in the Canary Islands, its southernmost limit in the eastern Atlantic

Here we report the first occurrence of P. pulchricaudatus for the Canary Islands, based on an individual recently caught by the second author off the island of Gran Canaria. The studied specimen was accidentally discovered, in situ photographed and collected by hand.

Northernmost record of Aristeus varidens (Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata, Aristeidae), with remarks on the fishery of penaeoids in the Canary Islands

Here we report the first occurrence of the striped red shrimp, Aristeus varidens Holthuis, 1952 (Aristeidae) for the Canary Islands, based on two large adults recently caught off the island of Tenerife. The biogeographic composition of the Dendrobranchiata occurring in this region is discussed. This note also describes for the first time the small-scale fisheries addressed to penaeoids in this archipelago, reporting on their separate landing statistics.

Risk assessment and study of trace/heavy metals in three species of fish of commercial interest on the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, eastern-central Atlantic)

The levels of toxic heavy metals (Al, Cd, Pb), macroelements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) and microelements and trace elements (B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, V, Zn) were determined in 54 muscle samples from three species of fish for human consumption, Balistes capriscus (grey triggerfish), Canthidermis sufflamen (oceanic triggerfish) and Heteropriacanthus fulgens (rock catalufa), using spectrometry of inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES). The aim of this study is to determine if the three species are good bioindicators of environmental pollution and to verify whether they are suitable for human consumption. Significant differences were found in the levels of Al, B, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Na and Zn between the three species studied. The results suggest that the underwater volcano off El Hierro influences the metallic content (Al, K the most characteristic) of H. fulgens. An evaluation of the toxic risk derived from the ingestion of B. capriscus, C. sufflamen and H. fulgens was carried out, analyzing the Admissible Daily Intake (ADI) and the Safety Margin (MoS). For the nutritional study, the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) index was used. Therefore, once the study has been carried out and under the conditions established in terms of daily / weekly fish consumption, proposed by AESAN, there would not be any type of toxic risk after ingesting B. capriscus, C. sufflamen and H. fulgens.

Lista, etimología y nombres comunes de los crustáceos decápodos de Canarias. Parte 3. Cigalas (Astacidea, Polychelida), duendes (Axiidea, Gebiidea), langostas (Achelata) y ermitaños (Anomura)

Se aporta una lista sistemática de 82 especies de decápodos Pleocyemata (camarones carideos y cangrejos braquiuros excluidos): cigalas (1 0), duendes (3), langostas (7) y ermitaños y afines (60) del Archipiélago Canario. Por primera vez, se recopilan su etimología y sus nombres comunes en español (de Canarias) e inglés; cuando la denominación vulgar de una especie es desconocida, se propone un nombre basado en una característica descriptiva, biológica o etimológica. La finalidad principal de este trabajo es contribuir a la normalización de las denominaciones comunes de la carcinofauna de estos decápodos Pleocyemata de Canarias. Ello facilitará la identificación de las especies, favoreciendo su divulgación y fomentando su estudio, aprovechamiento sostenible y conservación.

Length–weight relationships of five selected demersal fishes from the Cabo Verde Islands (eastern-central Atlantic)

The length–weight relationships (LWR) were estimated for five selected demersal marine fishes from the relatively undisturbed shelves and slopes of the Cabo Verde Islands. Most of them were of ecological and/or commercial interest. Occasional sampling was carried out during different fisheries research projects. LWRs were taken for the following bycatch species for which no such estimates exists in the science literature: Myroconger compressus, Synaphobranchus affinis, Physiculus cyanostrophus, Physiculus caboverdensis and Canthidermis maculata.

Restructuring of the ‘Macaronesia’ biogeographic unit: A marine multi-taxon biogeographical approach

The Azores, Madeira, Selvagens, Canary Islands and Cabo Verde are commonly united under the term “Macaronesia”. This study investigates the coherency and validity of Macaronesia as a biogeographic unit using six marine groups with very different dispersal abilities: coastal fishes, echinoderms, gastropod molluscs, brachyuran decapod crustaceans, polychaete annelids, and macroalgae. We found no support for the current concept of Macaronesia as a coherent marine biogeographic unit. All marine groups studied suggest the exclusion of Cabo Verde from the remaining Macaronesian archipelagos and thus, Cabo Verde should be given the status of a biogeographic subprovince within the West African Transition province. We propose to redefine the Lusitanian biogeographical province, in which we include four ecoregions: the South European Atlantic Shelf, the Saharan Upwelling, the Azores, and a new ecoregion herein named Webbnesia, which comprises the archipelagos of Madeira, Selvagens and the Canary Islands.

Lista, etimología y nombres comunes de los crustáceos decápodos de Canarias. Parte 2. Gambas (Dendrobranchiata), camarones espinosos (Stenopodidea) y camarones (Caridea)

Se aporta una lista sistemá¬tica de las 161 especies de gambas (50), camarones espinosos (2) y camarones (109) del Archipiélago Canario. Por pri¬mera vez, se recopilan su etimología y sus nombres comunes en español (de Canarias) e inglés; cuando la denomina¬ción vulgar de una especie es descono¬cida, se propone un nombre basado en una característica descriptiva, biológica o etimológica. La finalidad principal de este trabajo es contribuir a la normalización de las denominaciones comunes de la carcinofauna de los decápodos nadadores (antiguos Natantia) de Canarias. Ello facilitará la identificación de las especies, favoreciendo su divulgación y fomentando su estudio, aprovechamiento sostenible y conservación.

On the presence of the deep-water rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris (Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata, Penaeidae) off the Canary Islands

Here we report on the first record of one new benthic shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846), on the basis of the collection of adults off the Canary Islands, that confirms previous evidence from larval stages in the plankton. This paper also provides evidence on the epibenthic behaviour of the species.

Caudal region regeneration in a natural population of the morid fish Physiculus cyanostrophus in the tropical eastern Atlantic ocean

The present study describes a remarkable caudal regeneration capacity of Physiculus cyanostrophus, a benthopelagic fish from the twilight zone. This trait reveals the ability of this particular morid to survive attacks that would be lethal in other species. In teleosts, the most widespread sublethal predation is confined to scale-eating and fin-nipping by specialized predators. In P. cyanosytrophus the larger sized individuals the greatest amount of tissue loss occurred in the caudal region (maximum 28 vertebrae, corresponding to 45% lost body length). The amount of regenerated tissue was independent of body losses and ranged between 5 and 19% of total length for the entire range of sizes. The frequency of regenerated individuals in the population increases with ontogeny (16.8–67.5%). Tissue losses represent a significant allocation of costs in terms of growth and offspring production. Nevertheless, regeneration capability decreases mortality in the large breeding females of a population, maximizing maternal fitness.

Artisanal fisheries in the Canary Islands (Eastern-Central Atlantic): Description, analysis of their economic contribution, current threats, and strategic actions for sustainable development

Fishing is a primary activity of great importance in the Canaries and has traditionally played an important role in reducing poverty, in job creation, strengthening food security and sovereignty, and increasing the value of its products. This study is needed to analyze fishing contribution in a region strongly based on tourism. Aims were: to update the inventory of fishing techniques, to detail the biodiversity involved, and for the first time to analyze the contribution of the landings. We also identify threats to the activity and draft a plan with strategic actions for its sustainability.

Current and emerging small-scale fisheries and target species in Cabo Verde, with recommendations for pilot actions favouring sustainable development

Fishing activity is a primary sector of great socioeconomic importance for the archipelago of Cabo Verde (eastern-central Atlantic), and has played a relevant role in strengthening food security, reducing poverty, job creation, balance of payments equilibrium and Gross Domestic Product. So, this review was needed to make small-scale fisheries visible in a Developing Island Country with a fast-growing tourist industry.

First report of an association of the deep-water hermit crab parapagurus pilosimanus (decapoda, parapaguridae) and the zoantharian epizoanthus from Macaronesia

Hermit crabs are important ecosystem engineers (Jones et al., 1994) in marine habitats, from the intertidal to the deep sea. The symbiotic associates of hermit crabs were reviewed worldwide by Williams & McDermott (2004), and over 550 invertebrates, from 16 phyla, were found associated with over 180 species of hermit crabs. Many studies have been focused on hermit crab-actiniarian associations, while hermit crab-zoantharian symbioses have received less attention (Kise et al., 2019).

An Atlantic journey: The distribution and fishing pattern of the Madeira deep sea fishery

The deep sea fishery targeting the black and intermediate scabbardfishes (Aphanopus spp.) off the Madeira archipelago represents one of the world long standing exploitations of meso- and bathypelagic fishes. The intensive fishing of the target species caused an overall decrease of more than (51%) in their yields.

Checklists of Crustacea Decapoda from the Canary and Cape Verde Islands, with an assessment of Macaronesian and Cape Verde biogeographic marine ecoregions

The complete list of Canarian marine decapods (last update by González & Quiles 2003, popular book) currently comprises 374 species/subspecies, grouped in 198 genera and 82 families; whereas the Cape Verdean marine decapods (now fully listed for the first time) are represented by 343 species/subspecies with 201 genera and 80 families.

Checklist of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda) from the Cape Verde Islands, with a biogeographic comparison with the Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic)

In the current scenario of defaunation and bioinvasion, increasing the knowledge about the composition in marine species and monitoring are an emergency need to control the biodiversity. Nearly 35 years have passed since Türkay (1982) published the decapod crustaceans of the Cape Verde islands,

Changes in catch and bycatch composition and in species diversity of a semi-floating shrimp-trap fishery in three eastern Atlantic island ecosystems with different degrees of human alteration

Composition and bycatch of semi-floating shrimp-trap fisheries (SSTF) were compared among areas with different levels of anthropogenic alteration of marine ecosystems. The three areas selected were Madeira, the Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Mean species richness and diversity of the SSTF did not show significant differences among areas.

Disentangling exploitation of the intertidal grazer Phorcus sauciatus (Gastropoda: Trochidae) in an oceanic archipelago: Implications for conservation

Harvesting of intertidal grazers such as topshells is known to affect negatively the exploited populations by altering population structure and decreasing abundance. Phorcus sauciatus has a wide geographic distribution in the North‐eastern Atlantic Ocean and is subject to increasing levels of harvesting pressure due to the expansion of human population on coastal areas.

Sex with the lights off: Can a morphological structure reveal the sex and functional sexual maturity in the genus Plesionika?

The present work describes a taxonomic trait able to determine sex in pandalid shrimps of the genus Plesionika and an indicator of functional maturity in females. This structure is described as formed by two teeth with abundant setae present in all males of the nine Plesionika species examined.